Censorship in Libraries and Information Centers: A Vital Activity for Successful Library Growth in Nigeria
Censorship is based on the use of state or group power to control freedom of expression or press. This is hinged on the fact that every society has customs, taboos or laws by which speech, dress, religious observance, and sexual expressions are regulated in order to protect the family, the church and the state. Intellectual freedom according to Article 19 of United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights is the right to freedom of thought and of expression of thought. Intellectual freedom guarantees everyone the right to freedom of opinion and expression. This right includes the freedom to hold opinions without interference and to seek, receive and impact information and ideas through any media and regardless of frontiers. Thus intellectual freedom encompasses the freedom to hold, receive and disseminate ideas. Whereas censorship is the suppression of ideas and information that individuals, groups or government officials find objectionable or dangerous. Censors usually achieve this through state powers via public institutions such as schools, libraries, information centers among others. This work therefore discussed censorship; various methods of censorship, intellectual freedom, Freedom of Information Act of Nigeria, collection development, selection of materials, censorship challenges and solutions in relation to the Nigerian society.